ID Tokens

The creation of ID Tokens is ultimately not done by OAuthLib but by your RequestValidator subclass. This is because their content is dependent on your implementation of users, their attributes, any claims you may wish to support, as well as the details of how you model the notion of a Client Application. As such OAuthLib simply calls your validator’s finalize_id_token method at the appropriate times during the authorization flow, depending on the grant type requested (Authorization Code, Implicit, Hybrid, etc.).

See examples below.

class oauthlib.oauth2.RequestValidator[source]

JWT/JWS example with pyjwt library

An example below using Cryptography library to load the private key and PyJWT to sign the JWT. Note that the claims list in the “data” dict must be set accordingly to the auth request.

You can switch to jwcrypto library if you want to return JWE instead.

class MyValidator(RequestValidator):
  def __init__(self, **kwargs):
      with open(path.join(path.dirname(path.realpath(__file__)), "./id_rsa"), 'rb') as fd:
          from cryptography.hazmat.backends import default_backend
          from cryptography.hazmat.primitives import serialization
          self.private_pem = serialization.load_pem_private_key(

      super().__init__(self, **kwargs)

  def finalize_id_token(self, id_token, token, token_handler, request):
      import jwt

      id_token["iss"] = ""
      id_token["sub"] =
      id_token["exp"] = id_token["iat"] + 3600 * 24  # keep it valid for 24hours
      for claim_key in
          id_token[claim_key] = request.userattributes[claim_key]  # this must be set in another callback

      return jwt.encode(id_token, self.private_pem, 'RS256')